It will empower organisations to judge the risks of counterproductive work behaviour and implement preventative measures.
On the one hand, lower-class individuals live in environments defined by fewer resources, greater threat, and more uncertainty (2, 3).
It stands to reason, therefore, that lower-class individuals may be more motivated to behave unethically to increase their resources or overcome their disadvantage.
Seven studies using experimental and naturalistic methods reveal that upper-class individuals behave more unethically than lower-class individuals.
In studies 1 and 2, upper-class individuals were more likely to break the law while driving, relative to lower-class individuals.
In follow-up laboratory studies, upper-class individuals were more likely to exhibit unethical decision-making tendencies (study 3), take valued goods from others (study 4), lie in a negotiation (study 5), cheat to increase their chances of winning a prize (study 6), and endorse unethical behavior at work (study 7) than were lower-class individuals.
Mediator and moderator data demonstrated that upper-class individuals’ unethical tendencies are accounted for, in part, by their more favorable attitudes toward greed.
This is yet another variation on the most common and insidious rationalization of them all and #1 on the list: “Everybody Does It.” The Golden Rationalization has many variations, among them… Ethics Surrender, however, warrants particular attention, as it encourages moral cowardice and ethics complacency.
Central Test, a global leader in the development of psychometric assessments, launches ETIX, a unique tool evaluating ethical behaviour in the workplace.
Central Test carried out research among its clients.
They discovered that 74% of HR managers believe their organisation suffers significant losses due to unethical behaviour, while 81% expressed interest in an assessment specifically designed to measure it.
This paper details the development and validation of a new research instrument called the ethically minded consumer behavior (EMCB) scale.